Human Anatomy

Comprehensive coloured illustrations of the different organs, tissues and structures organised into groups of general function and or purpose.  Top left provides the cardio-respiratory system, top right the digestive system and associated vasculature, bottom left the nervous system, focussing on the network and organisation, and the bottom right shows the sensory structures of the peripheral nervous system.

Amphibian Circulatory System

A typical circulatory system of the class Amphibia.  Note the three chambered heart (most visible in 4) where oxygenated blood (from capillaries in gills, lungs and/or skin) and de-oxygenated blood from systemic tissues mix in the ventricle before returning to both sets of tissues via a fork in the aorta.  The heart is shown in two views looking both at the ventral (2) and dorsal (3) surfaces.

Amphibian Central Nervous System

The central nervous system of a stereotypical amphibian.  An entire dorsal dissection of a brain (1) shows the cerebral hemispheres (Hem), the optic lobes (C. big), the cerebellum (Crbl) and the medulla oblangata (M. obl) amongst other strutctures.  The other views represented are a horizontal longitudinal section (2), a vertical longitudinal section (3), an entire ventral dissection with circulatory and digestive systems pulled to the right side (4), partial ventral dissection of M. obl and C. big with hypothalamus removed (5), a cross section of the spinal cord with associated nerves and ganglia (6) and a representation of a mechanosensory hair cell receptor (7) showing neurons associated with “hairs” contained within a flexible gell cap.

Ambyploda (Extinct Herbivorous Mammals)

Skeletal components of the now obsolete Order of extinct mammals the Amblypoda showing:  Coryphodon skulls (1 & 2), feet (3 & 4) and cheek teeth (5 & 6); Dinoceras skulls (7 & 8), feet (9 & 10) and cheek teeth (11 & 12).  Note the similar structure of the feet which was incorrectly used to define this obsolete group (ambly – dull or blunt; poda – feet) from fossil evidence.

Quadruped Hind Leg Anatomy

The below series of photographs use McGregor Museum specimens to illustrate the ancestral similarities (synapomorphies) and derived differences (apomorphies) between the hind leg of different quadrupedal mammals.  Keep in mind the habit and locomotory behaviour of these animals as you compare their limb structure.


Here the leg of a goat (Capra aegagrus) represents the unguligrade anatomy of locomotion.


Likewise, the hind leg of the leopard (Panthera pardus; left) and european hare (Lepus europaeus; right) illustrate the digitigrade’s anatomy.


The above black bear (Ursus americanus) hind limb is representative of plantigrades anatomy.

Gadus morhua (Atlantic Cod)

Sketches showing the anterior internal anatomy of an atlantic cod.  The left image highlights the vasculature of the blood circulatory system (oxygenated in red, de-oxygenated in blue).  Note the high levels of vasculature surrounding the gut (transportation of absorbed nutrients) and rete mirabile of the swim bladder (control volume of oxygen in swim bladder via root effect).  The capillaries of the gills have been omitted in the left image but are present in the one on the right.  The right hand image also illustrates well the alimentary canal complete with a blind ended pouch in the stomach, the mid-gut caece for enzyme production and absorptive intenstines.  The latter image also shows the skeletal framework, kidneys (red below spine), gall bladder (green), swim bladder (white and frilly, below kidney), and the gonad (red, connected to vent).