The Diptera are known as the true flies and are characterised by one set of flying wings with the hind pair developed into halteres (II in 5), accelerometers which provide neural information on the orientation and changes to direction of the fly. Flies are also characterised by the lack of chewing mouth parts, as they only consume liquid food sometimes by digesting it externally and sucking it up via a modified labelluma and labium (Lb in 9).
The order with the most numerous species, the coleoptera make up about 40% of all insect species. Known commonly as beetles their body plan doesn’t vary drastically within the order however homologous structures are often put to different uses. This chart shows the development (1) of the potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) from eggs (a) through the four instars of larvae (b I-IV) and the inactive pre-pupal larva (bV) before skipping the pupal stage to show the adult form (c). The pre-pupa (2), pupa(3 & 4) and adult (5) are also shown enlarged. Sketches of an antennae (6), leg (7) and mouthparts (8) are also illustrated.
Adult (1, 2, 9, 10 & 11) and larval (12 & 13) representatives of plant parasitising wasps and ants of Hymenoptera. Structures on plants are galls which are large deformations of plant tissue induced to grow once a female lays eggs into the plant tissue. These galls provide nutrients and protection for larvae however, these larvae are often hyper-parasitised by other hymenopterans, sometimes of the same family.
External appearances through complete metamorphosis of more derived Hymenopteran representatives showing: Maggot-like larval stages (1, 5 & 6), an inactive pupal stage (2), adult forms (3, 4 & 7) and early developmental stages (9-13). The parasatoid life history of many Hymenopteran wasps is represented (6).