Adult (1, 2, 9, 10 & 11) and larval (12 & 13) representatives of plant parasitising wasps and ants of Hymenoptera. Structures on plants are galls which are large deformations of plant tissue induced to grow once a female lays eggs into the plant tissue. These galls provide nutrients and protection for larvae however, these larvae are often hyper-parasitised by other hymenopterans, sometimes of the same family.
External appearances through complete metamorphosis of more derived Hymenopteran representatives showing: Maggot-like larval stages (1, 5 & 6), an inactive pupal stage (2), adult forms (3, 4 & 7) and early developmental stages (9-13). The parasatoid life history of many Hymenopteran wasps is represented (6).