Amphibian Central Nervous System

The central nervous system of a stereotypical amphibian.  An entire dorsal dissection of a brain (1) shows the cerebral hemispheres (Hem), the optic lobes (C. big), the cerebellum (Crbl) and the medulla oblangata (M. obl) amongst other strutctures.  The other views represented are a horizontal longitudinal section (2), a vertical longitudinal section (3), an entire ventral dissection with circulatory and digestive systems pulled to the right side (4), partial ventral dissection of M. obl and C. big with hypothalamus removed (5), a cross section of the spinal cord with associated nerves and ganglia (6) and a representation of a mechanosensory hair cell receptor (7) showing neurons associated with “hairs” contained within a flexible gell cap.

Columba livia (rock pigeon brain)

The brain of a rock pigeon entire from above (top left), entire from below (top right), entire from the lateral left (middle left), vertical-longitunal section (middle right) and horizontal longitudinal sections with increasing depth on each side left to right (bottom two diagrams).  Major regions of the brain shown are the cerebral hemispheres (large, paired, round, grey structures), pineal body (red structure between cerebral hemispheres from above), optic lobes (yellow and round, beneath and posterior to cerebral hemispheres), cerebellum (folded structure, central and posterior), and medulla oblongata (gold, paired central structures at very posterior).