Beetles (Coleoptera)

The order with the most numerous species, the coleoptera make up about 40% of all insect species.  Known commonly as beetles their body plan doesn’t vary drastically within the order however homologous structures are often put to different uses.  This chart shows the internal structures of a developing circulionidae larva (1) as well as external features of typical circulionidae and scarabaeidae larvae (14 & 16 respectively).  The role of embryonic tissues in development is also illustrated (17 & 18) showing the ectoderm (blue; ec), mesoderm (pink; me) and endoderm (bright yellow; ed).

The order with the most numerous species, the coleoptera make up about 40% of all insect species. Known commonly as beetles their body plan doesn’t vary drastically within the order however homologous structures are often put to different uses. This chart shows the internal structures of a developing circulionidae larva (1) as well as external features of typical circulionidae and scarabaeidae larvae (14 & 16 respectively). The role of embryonic tissues in development is also illustrated (17 & 18) showing the ectoderm (blue; ec), mesoderm (pink; me) and endoderm (bright yellow; ed).

Quadruped Hind Leg Anatomy

The below series of photographs use McGregor Museum specimens to illustrate the ancestral similarities (synapomorphies) and derived differences (apomorphies) between the hind leg of different quadrupedal mammals.  Keep in mind the habit and locomotory behaviour of these animals as you compare their limb structure.


Here the leg of a goat (Capra aegagrus) represents the unguligrade anatomy of locomotion.


Likewise, the hind leg of the leopard (Panthera pardus; left) and european hare (Lepus europaeus; right) illustrate the digitigrade’s anatomy.


The above black bear (Ursus americanus) hind limb is representative of plantigrades anatomy.