Amphipods and Isopods

Arthrostraca was an order that included all species of Isopods and Amphipods because of their superficial similarities.  This combination of two groups was retained within a newer classification scheme as Edriophthalma and a sister taxa Mysidacea which have since been rejected in favour of the order Peracarida which encompasses all members which were previously in these two groups.  This chart shows the nervous system (blue), circulatory organ of the open blood system (pink), alimentary canal (yellow), digestive glands (orange) and brooding eggs under flattened segments of limbs (grey circles in 2 & 6).

Barnacles (Cirripedia)

The barnacles illustrated here are representative of two particular orders the stalked barnacles; Pedunculata (1 & 2) and the sessile barnacles; Sessilia (7 & 10).  Also shown are various developmental stages including nauplier larva (3 & 8), cyprinid larva (5 & 6), intermediate forms between the two aforementioned larval stages (4 &9) and post settlement juveniles (11 & 12).  Both order’s shells are comprised of carina (Ca), tergum (Te) and rostrum (R).  Barnacles feed by filtering particulate matter from the water column with their jointed appendages (not labelled).  Female reproductive organs, ovaries (Ov) are found near the base of the animal while the male penis (P) is associated with the testes (H) near the base of the feeding appedages.  The digestive system is coloured yellow.

Tusk Shells (Scaphopoda)

The Scaphopoda, or tusk shells, are a basal form of mollusk which filter feed on detritus and foraminifera from the surface of soft sediments.  The muscular foot (1P) anchors the anterior end of the body in the sediment while the apical (narrow) end protrudes the surface.  Water is drawn into the mantle cavity, which has no gills, via the apical opening using cillia.  Food particles are sorted from sediment before a muscular contraction ejects  the water back out the same opening.  This diagram shows an adult laterally within its shell (1) and ventrally without a shell (2) where blue represents nervous tissue, red is blood vessels, green is gonad and yellow is the digestive system which is shown isolated in higher magnification (3).  Further illustrations show a detailed progression of development (4-11).

Sponges (Hexactinellida)

The Coelenterata are an obsolete taxon used to group together the Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Porifera.  The Hexactinellida are thought to be a basal group of the Porifera because of their simple, mainly asconoid, cup shape (1 – 7).  Other evidence for this hypothesis are their simple, siliceous, four or six pointed spicules (a & h), the presence of a syncitial epidermal layer (indiscrete cells characterised by a large cytoplasm and many nuclei) and their inability to retract the feeding choanocytes in response to stimuli.  Many of the other spicules pictured here (letters besides a & h) are probably broken or malformed spicules as environmental conditions play a large role in spicule formation.

Sponges (Lithistida)

The Coelenterata are an obsolete phylum which encompassed sponges and Cnidarians (with ctenophores within Cnidaria).  The  order Porifera is now classified as a phylum containing all filter feeding sponges.  The most basal of the eumatetazoan phyla, Porifera are derived from the sister taxon to eumetazoans, single celled choanoflagellates.  This wall chart shows representative body forms (1-4), internal structures (5-8) and spicule shapes (7 & 9) of an obsolete class now distributed throughout Porifera.  The group Lithistida has been retained as an order whose members are mainly known as fossils but still have some extant representatives.

Centipedes, Millipedes and Relatives (Myriapoda)

The Myriapoda are a subphylum of Arthropods that comprises centipedes (Chilopoda: 1), millipedes (Diplopoda) and similarly structured sister Classes (Pauropoda: 12 & Symphyla: 11).  Centipedes are mostly carnivorous and characterised by having venomous claws (4) as their first set of paired appendages.  The metameric segmentation (repeated segments) of centipedes allows flexibility in the number of walking legs (one pair per segment) between species, however segments with walking legs always come in pairs hence the number of walking legs is only ever in multiples of four.  The Symphyla are also known as pseudocentipedes and are much smaller, lack pigment and eyes, all of which suits their mostly subterrainean lifestyle living in pore spaces of soil eating decaying matter and root hairs.  The Pauropoda are smaller still and, when seen, are found normally found in leaf litter.  This chart illustrates the ganglia associated with each segment and its pair of walking legs (1: blue), male and female reproductive structures of the Chilopoda (6 & 7 respectively) and the initial development from an egg (8-10).

Potato Beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata; Coleoptera)

The order with the most numerous species, the coleoptera make up about 40% of all insect species.  Known commonly as beetles their body plan doesn’t vary drastically within the order however homologous structures are often put to different uses.  This chart shows the development (1) of the potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) from eggs (a) through the four instars of larvae (b I-IV) and the inactive pre-pupal larva (bV) before skipping the pupal stage to show the adult form (c).  The pre-pupa (2), pupa(3 & 4) and adult (5) are also shown enlarged.  Sketches of an antennae (6), leg (7) and mouthparts (8) are also illustrated.

Stomatopoda

The stomatopoda are  group of crustaceans called mantis shrimp although they are distinct from shrimp and named mantis for their shared appearance with terrestrial mantids.  They are predatory animals which often ambush from burrow or, less often, actively track and hunt prey.  Prey capture uses very fast moving front appendages typically shaped into a barbed spear or a blunt club, the latter of which can create shock waves similar in nature to those produced by snapping shrimp.  This chart shows the external (1) and internal (2) features of an adult.  The colours represent different systems including the circulartory (red), reproductive (green) and digestive (yellow).  Larval stages are also shown (5-7) which may remain pelagic for up to three months.

Beetles (Coleoptera)

The order with the most numerous species, the coleoptera make up about 40% of all insect species.  Known commonly as beetles their body plan doesn’t vary drastically within the order however homologous structures are often put to different uses.  This chart shows the internal structures of a developing circulionidae larva (1) as well as external features of typical circulionidae and scarabaeidae larvae (14 & 16 respectively).  The role of embryonic tissues in development is also illustrated (17 & 18) showing the ectoderm (blue; ec), mesoderm (pink; me) and endoderm (bright yellow; ed).

The order with the most numerous species, the coleoptera make up about 40% of all insect species. Known commonly as beetles their body plan doesn’t vary drastically within the order however homologous structures are often put to different uses. This chart shows the internal structures of a developing circulionidae larva (1) as well as external features of typical circulionidae and scarabaeidae larvae (14 & 16 respectively). The role of embryonic tissues in development is also illustrated (17 & 18) showing the ectoderm (blue; ec), mesoderm (pink; me) and endoderm (bright yellow; ed).

Zoological Charts

Most of the Zoological wall chart collection here at the McGregor Museum is comprised of those authored by Karl Georg Friedrich Rudolf Leuckart.  A prominent zoologist of his time Leuckart made a name for himself through the study of North Sea invertebrates where he developed the groups coelenterata and echinodermata, the latter still in use today.  His primary interest became vertebrate parasitology which is the field he became a prominent academic in.  His studies in parasitology are best known for the break throughs in identifying worms that specifically infested cattle, pigs, sheep and humans.  These findings ultimately led to the formation of Germany’s first meat inspectory board.  Leuckart’s wall charts are collections of both his own drawings and his those working with him and were accumulated throughout the length of his career.

Many of the teaching wall charts have also been hand drawn by various authors presumably from here at the University of Auckland, the most predominant of which signed their name qvp.  There are also some paleontological charts by the geologist/paleontologist Karl Alfred Ritter von Zittel drawn and published in a similar style to those of Rudolf leuckart’s.

These charts all date back to the late 1800’s and as such some are quite delicate and brittle.  They are printed/drawn on paper and many have been mounted on linen in a similar fashion to old navigation charts and maps.  To digitise this collection individual images were retrieved from a map scanner and were touched up in image editing software to increase contrast and remove some background discolouration.  The files here on this site are .jpg images (approximately 2MB each) and can be viewed by clicking on the image itself or saved by right-clicking and selecting ‘save image as’.  Should you require higher resolution images please contact the site administrator with the individual post’s title and the image’s heading(s).