Human Anatomy

Comprehensive coloured illustrations of the different organs, tissues and structures organised into groups of general function and or purpose.  Top left provides the cardio-respiratory system, top right the digestive system and associated vasculature, bottom left the nervous system, focussing on the network and organisation, and the bottom right shows the sensory structures of the peripheral nervous system.

Amphibian Circulatory System

A typical circulatory system of the class Amphibia.  Note the three chambered heart (most visible in 4) where oxygenated blood (from capillaries in gills, lungs and/or skin) and de-oxygenated blood from systemic tissues mix in the ventricle before returning to both sets of tissues via a fork in the aorta.  The heart is shown in two views looking both at the ventral (2) and dorsal (3) surfaces.

Amphibian Central Nervous System

The central nervous system of a stereotypical amphibian.  An entire dorsal dissection of a brain (1) shows the cerebral hemispheres (Hem), the optic lobes (C. big), the cerebellum (Crbl) and the medulla oblangata (M. obl) amongst other strutctures.  The other views represented are a horizontal longitudinal section (2), a vertical longitudinal section (3), an entire ventral dissection with circulatory and digestive systems pulled to the right side (4), partial ventral dissection of M. obl and C. big with hypothalamus removed (5), a cross section of the spinal cord with associated nerves and ganglia (6) and a representation of a mechanosensory hair cell receptor (7) showing neurons associated with “hairs” contained within a flexible gell cap.

Ambyploda (Extinct Herbivorous Mammals)

Skeletal components of the now obsolete Order of extinct mammals the Amblypoda showing:  Coryphodon skulls (1 & 2), feet (3 & 4) and cheek teeth (5 & 6); Dinoceras skulls (7 & 8), feet (9 & 10) and cheek teeth (11 & 12).  Note the similar structure of the feet which was incorrectly used to define this obsolete group (ambly – dull or blunt; poda – feet) from fossil evidence.

Columba livia (rock pigeon brain)

The brain of a rock pigeon entire from above (top left), entire from below (top right), entire from the lateral left (middle left), vertical-longitunal section (middle right) and horizontal longitudinal sections with increasing depth on each side left to right (bottom two diagrams).  Major regions of the brain shown are the cerebral hemispheres (large, paired, round, grey structures), pineal body (red structure between cerebral hemispheres from above), optic lobes (yellow and round, beneath and posterior to cerebral hemispheres), cerebellum (folded structure, central and posterior), and medulla oblongata (gold, paired central structures at very posterior).

Gadus morhua (Atlantic Cod)

Sketches showing the anterior internal anatomy of an atlantic cod.  The left image highlights the vasculature of the blood circulatory system (oxygenated in red, de-oxygenated in blue).  Note the high levels of vasculature surrounding the gut (transportation of absorbed nutrients) and rete mirabile of the swim bladder (control volume of oxygen in swim bladder via root effect).  The capillaries of the gills have been omitted in the left image but are present in the one on the right.  The right hand image also illustrates well the alimentary canal complete with a blind ended pouch in the stomach, the mid-gut caece for enzyme production and absorptive intenstines.  The latter image also shows the skeletal framework, kidneys (red below spine), gall bladder (green), swim bladder (white and frilly, below kidney), and the gonad (red, connected to vent).

Canis lupus

Canis lupus is most commonly referred to as the wolf.  With 39 subspecies the morphological variation amongst members of this species is in some ways subtle, asthetically it is diverse.  The sub-species commonly referred to as the domesticated dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is most probably derived from the more ancient lineage of asiatic/arab wolf (Canis lupus arabs).